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SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ON MOLLUSKS AND MARINE LIFE 



$3.00 January, 19feooio Volume 17, Number 1 




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Calliostoma variegatum Carpenter, 1864. 25 mm specimen photo- 
graphed by Ronald L.Shimek at30 mdepth, Effinghamlnlet, (fijord west 
side of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada), 18 July, 1984. 



IN THIS ISSUE: Cones, Olives, Murex, Cowries, 
Abalone, Ceriths, Land Shells and more! 



EDITOR'S NOTES 

Here we go with 1985 — our 17th year of monthly publication. The 
past year has seen tremendous growth and not without a few problems. 
We still have not been able to get the issues out early in the month on a 
regular basis but hope to settle into a smoother production schedule this 
year. We changed printers 5 times last year, working to keep the quality 
high while controlling costs. We also purchased a major typesetting 
capabiltity and other production equipment so that we could ensure the 
magazine quality and accuracy. The format change has been in mind for 
several years now and is the "final" step toward our goals. 

Each month you will see the latest information on shells and sea life 
with more pages in color and more articles this year. Our goal is to 
provide a unique publication for everyone who enjoys mollusks, from 
beginner to professional, with everything you want to pursue your 
interests. 

This issue has over a dozen shell articles. Our new page size allows us 
to include many more articles and to separate things soyou canlook atthe 
table of contents and go right to your favorite subject. The convientsize 
will also make Shells and Sea Life easier to read and use wherever you 
are. Our goal isn't to knock your eyes out but to make our information 
more useful —■ easier to find, easier to read, easier to understand. The 
new type size is designed to get more information in each issue without 
sacrificing readability. 

Each month's issue will include more short articles so that you will find 
several things of interest. We will also have one or more feature articles 
of longer length for in-depth coverage of important subjects. Finally, to 
make the complex tales we tell easier to understand, were grouping more 
of our subjects into bite-size pieces. We like the short notes with a 
photograph or two along with a simple description of what happened and 
where the subject came from. Your comments indicate that you like the 
same type of articles. Let us know how we are doing. 

A special thanks to all of our Editorial Review Board for their labors 
last year. We also thank Kenneth Boss, Jack Brookshire, CM. Burgess, 
Anthony D'Atillio, William K. Emerson, Jerry Haraseywich, Roland 
Houart, Russ Jensen, Eveline Marcus, James H. McLean, Robert 
Robertson, Joseph Rosewater, Barry Roth, Walter Sage, Emily H. Vokes 
and R.C. Willan for help reviewing articles. Finally, thanks to all of you 
who wrote or called with suggestions, comments and criticisms. 

* * * * * 

We have received word of the passing of two friends in recent weeks. 
Torry C. Orest died November 19, 1984 and Faye Howard de Montano 
died on December 14, 1984. We hope to have additional information in 
the February issue. 

2 S&SL - January, 1985 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 

January, 1985 Contents Volume 17, Number 1 

04 NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: Looking both ways. 

07 Working Abalone Shell is Hazardous. Russ Jensen 

08 DEALING WITH DEALERS: "Gem" Condition; does it Exist? 

David DeLucia 

09 ON THE REEF WITH BOB PURTYMUN: Cerithium, 

Pseudostomatella, & Conus. 

1 1 The "Cabbage Patch" Snails. John Bernard 

12 Albino Black Abalone Update. David W. Behrens 

13 The Status of "Murex" funafutiensis Hedley, and some Favartia 

Species. Walter O. Cernohorsky 

15 Announcement: Delaware Museum of Natural History. 

16 YOUR COLLECTION -- A HOW-TO COLUMN: No. 6. Why make 

a Catalog? Susan J. Hewitt 

16 Announcement: Smithsonian Position Available. 

17 Common Names List of North American Marine 

Gastropods, Part 3. American Malacological Union 

27 Sand Trails. Stephanie Prince r 

28 The Camaenidae, a Diverse Family of Land Mollusks, Part 1. 

Richard L. Goldberg 
32 PERSONAL NOTES 

34 Seashell Stamps. Tom Rice ; 2;gJ 

36 Photographic Techniques. David K. Mulliner ^2 

39 Observations of a Dwarf Octopus, Octopus micropyrsius, ~ 

Peter L. Haaker ^ & 

Editorial Staff Articles containing descriptions of new or 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long repositioned taxa will be given priority provided 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett the holotype(s) have been deposited with a 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch recognised public museum and museum 

Photographic Editor David K. Mulliner numbers are included with the manuscript. We 

Contributing Editor Tom Rice undertake no responsibility for unsolicited 

material sent for possible inclusion in the 

Editorial Review Board publication. No material submited will be 

R. Tucker Abbott David W. Behrens returned unless accompanied by return postage 

Hans Bertsch Kerry B. Clark and packing. Reprints will be supplied at $0.15 

Walter O. Cernohorsky Malcolm Edmunds per page provided they are ordered prior to 

Eugene V. Coan Terrence Gosliner publication. 

Michael T. Ghiselin James R. Lance SHELLS and SEA LIFE ISSN 0747-6078 is 

George L. Kennedy T.E. Thompson published monthly for $20 per year by Steven J. 

William G. Lyons Long & Sally Bennett, 505 E. Pasadena, 

Phoenix, AZ 85012. Second-Class Postage Paid 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE was formerly known at Phoenix, AZ. POSTMASTER: Send address 

as the OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER. changes to SHELLS and SEA LIFE, 505 E. 

The magazine is open to articles and notes on Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 85012. Telephone (602) 

any aspect of malacology orrelated marine life. 274-3615. U.S. postal ZIP code areas, add $4 

Articles submitted for publication are subject to postage. Outside U.S. postal ZIP code areas, 

editorial board review and may include color or add $9 surface or $35 air mail postage. Library 

black & white illustrations. Short notes [less basic rate is $36/year plus applicable postage, 

than 500 words] will normally appear in Send change of address 6 weeks in advance. 

PERSONAL NOTES or READER FORUM. Charge to remail issue for any reason $3.50. 

Articles should be submitted typed and double- Sample copies are available for $3.50 each 

spaced. For additional information send for free postpaid. Rates subject to change without 

booklet "Suggestions to Contributors". notice. 

© Copyright Steven J. Long & Sally Bennett 1984 



NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: Looking both ways. 



Janus was the Roman God of gates and beginnings, represented by two 
opposite faces. As we begin anew year,it is traditional toreview thepast 
year and look forward. It is certainly appropriate for a monthly column 
to tie up loose ends and warn readers what is in store for them in the com- 
ing months. 

PAST 

During the last twelve months, I have discussed a diversity of mollusks 
and other marine invertebrates, various evolutionary adaptions, and 
research expeditions. 

In October, I illustrated two camouflaged commensal shrimp on the 
eastern Pacific crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster elisii. Alex 
Kerstitch kindly informed me that the shrimp are the wide ranging and 
color variable Indo-Pacif ic Periclimenes soror. If you had difficulty spot- 
ting the shrimp (page 184), they are on the left hand side of the picture 
(not right as stated in the figure explanations); the printed photo wasori- 
ented differently than I had intended. [Sorry Hans, Sally]. 

During the summer months, I discussed the biology and anatomy of 
species of Cyphoma. In October, Dr. Terrence Gosliner and I were diving 
on Dave Mulliner's "secret reef south of Isla Coronado in Bahia de Los 
Angeles, Baja California, Mexico. We found a pair of Cyphoma 
emarginatum. The dark brown and cream striations on the mantle are 
obvious and prominent; there are also small pointed papillae projecting 
from the mantle surface. 

BELOW: Cyphoma emarginatum . October, 1984. 




S&SL - January, 1985 




ABOVE: Jenneria pustulata juvenille, October, 1984, 18 mm. 
BELOW: Cypraea granulata . October. 1984, 25 mm, 20 mm. 




S&SL - January, 1985 



In February I wrote about Jenneria pustulata, during the same October 
expedition to Bahfa de Los Angeles (Terry, Dave and I were also accompa- 
nied by Dr. Antonio J. Ferreria and California Acadamy of Sciences' 
curatorial assistants Robert Van Syoc and David Catania). I found 
various specimens of Jenneria pustulata. Two were probably a male and 
female pair since I also found their small round pinkish-red egg capsules 
underneath them. The adult shell is distinctive with thehard knobs bril- 
liantly colored orange with an encircling brownish band. At one of my 
favorite dive sites I found a small juvenile (with bulla-like shell) at 7 m 
depth. The photo shows some very interesting features. Note the 
extremely long, dendritic papillae. The orange dots and brown rings are 
obvious. However, these colors are in the mantle skin,not theshell. The 
bulloid shell is darkish gray brown without the spots. The orange spots 
on the mantle may well be indicative of secretory processes that will 
deposit the adult shell coloration. 

PRESENT 

The Hawiian Islands are an exciting evolutionary showcase of specia- 
tion and adaption. Their distance from other islands and land masses has 
made it difficult for marine organisms to reach the islands by larval 
transport on oceanic currents. Hence, there is a fair amount of endemic 
marine species. 

Cypraea granulata Pease, 1863, is one such endemic species. Known 
only from the Hawaiian Islands, it has been found in Pleistocene fossil 
deposits on Oahu and Molokai. The 25 mm shell is pinkish-gray, rough 
textured with marginal and ventral ridges (the apertural teeth continue 
around the side of the shell partly reaching the dorsal surface), and 
numerous nodules on the dorsal side. It is a distinctive exception among 
the characteristically smooth-shelled cowries. 

The mantle of Cypraea granulata is brownish with dark striations and 
white mottling. It has long papillae (some nearly half the length of the 
shell) which branch distally. 

FUTURE 

During the coming year I look forward to writing about numerous 
interesting features of the ocean. Anthony D'Attilio is letting me pho- 
tograph specimens of Angaria in the collections of the San Diego Natural 
History Museum. Among other topics I will be discussing and 
illustrating species of Hawiian miters, Conus dusavelli (H. Adams, 1872), 
and molluscan egg masses. Throughout the coming months, I will share 
with you many interesting and intriguing facets of the evolution and 
ecology of shells and sea life. 

References 

Bertsch.Hans & Scott Johnson. 1983. Zoogeograffacomparativa delos opistobranquios (Mollusca: 
Gastropoda) con enfasis en la cuenca Pacffica Hawaii y California): composicion faunal, 
afinidades provinciales y densidad submareal. Ciencias Marianas, 8(2):125-153. 

Zinsmeister, W.J. & William K. Emerson. 1979. The role of passive dispersal in the distribution of 
hemipelagic invertebrates, with examples from the tropical Pacific Ocean. Veliger, 22(l):32-40. 

Dr. Hans Bertsch, 4444 West Point Loma Blvd. #83, San Diego CA 92107. 

6 S&SL - January, 1985 



Working Abalone Shell is Hazardous!!! 

by Russ Jensen 



You can tumble abaloneshell infine quartzsand. Put ina barrel(tum- 
bler) with enough water to cover them and rotate for 1 to 2 days. Wash 
thoroughly and put in barrel (tumbler)with twoounces of tripoli for each 
6 pounds of shells. Tumble for 12 to 15 hours. Wash and dry thoroughly. 
Fill tumbler half full with shells, then add sawdust from a hardwood for 
cushioning. Add polish of your choice at ratio of two ounces to 6 pounds 
of shell. Run dry for 2 to 3 hours. Wash and admire. 

CAUTION: Remember when tumbling abalone shells, they emit a poi- 
sonous gas. Release the gasses every day and do it outdoors. DO NOT 
inhale the gas fumes from the abalone. 

Abalone shell is composed of two materials - a horny substance called 
chitin and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate is present in two 
forms: calcite and aragonite. Working abalone shell can be hazardous in 
two ways. First - grinding, dry burns the chitin in the shell, producing a 
toxic gas which may cause headaches and prolonged exposure could possi- 
bly cause serious illness. Second - the dust produced when the shell is 
worked is so fine that it floats readily in the air. This dust contains tiny 
crystals which, under magnification, are seen to have many razor-sharp, 
jagged edges. Inhaled, these micro-crystals cut and slash the delicate 
lung tissues with each breath movement. The injured tissue is easily 
infected. Miners' disease (or emphysema) often results from breathing 
calcium carbonate dust. 

Do all sanding, grinding, and polishing VERY WET. Wear a WET 
dust mask. When finished working, wash away ALL mud from tools, 
bench, apron, hands and clothes with lots of water because when the mud 
dries out it is again dangerous. 

(This article prompted by an accident in a high school. The teacher 
didn't realize the danger. Information taken in partfrom O.L.FryeVRed 
Abalone, Queen of New World Gems.") [Russ Jensen, 2 Mt. Vernon Place, 
Chadds Ford, PA 19317] 

INTRODUCING: 




Suncoast Conchologists/ 



A new shell club has been formed to serve North 
Pinellas, Pasco and Hillsborough Counties in 
Florida, with meetings and other activities 
bringing together beginners and experienced 
shelters in a relaxed and friendly atmosphere. 
They plan to meet the last Tuesday of each 
month (excepy July and August), Plan to visit 
them and get acquainted! For more details 
write the club president, Carolyn Petrikin.P.O. 
Box 1564, Palm Harbor, FL 33565, or call (813) 
785-4761 or 343-9245. 



S&SL - January, 1985 



DEALING WITH DEALERS: 
"Gem" Condition; does it Exist? 

by David DeLucia 

Most dealers are fair and ethical, and are fully aware of their 
responsibility as far as "truth in advertising" is concerned. However, 
there are a few who, whether by design or accident, appear to mislead 
potential customers, and you should be aware of what to look for. 

I just received a list in the mail today which proudly proclaimed "all 
shells in 'gem' condition unless otherwise noted". At best this is an 
enthusiastic overstatement. True "gem" shells are about as rare as a 
dealer who lists them correctly. Even in such genera as Cypraea or Oliva, 
one has to be very careful. The shinysurface canhide amultitude of sins 
which are usually not detected for a few weeks, when it's too late. 

Dealers have developed a whole lexicon of terms which are used to 
disguise the fact that only about one in 50 shells is atrue "gem". Onesuch 
phrase is "gem for species." This has been used for cold water whelks 
which are in "fine" class, at best. Besides being inaccurate, this is very 
misleading. The prospective customer expects a specimen with only a 
few natural flaws and is subsequently shocked to receive a shell with the 
tip missing or the lip half gone. 

Another phrase I see all the time is "gem except for...." This is a 
contradiction in terms. The "except for" cancels out any possibility of 
the shell being a gem. Nevertheless some dealers use the phrase because 
the customer sees the word "gem" right away and first impressions are 
important "gem, except for..." has been known to cover shells with filed 
lips, tiny nacre flaws, or blunted spires. One list I saw the other day ran 
as follows: "gem, except for three small chips in the lip, slight dorsal 
mends, missing protoconch, and several pin holes". Wow! I was tempted 
to order it just to see the part that was "gem" - perhaps the suture? 

The obvious solution is for dealers to grade shells accurately with no 
props. I suspect many are afraid that too many "goods" or "fines" will 
discourage customers from ordering. Well, that may be true in cases 
when the shell can be obtained in better condition, but at least if the 
customer does order such an item he knows exactly what he is getting. 

So, how does one assess a new dealers list? First of all most shells 
should be in the "fine" to "fine+" range, with "gems" relatively rare. 
"Good" or even "fair" is permissible with a genus such as Buccinum, for 
example. One should avoid completely any list that uses no grading 
system at all. In such a case, you have absolutely no way of knowing 
what you are getting and could end up getting someone else's junk for 
exorbitant prices. 

David DeLucia, 7 Sunset Hill Drive, Branford, CT 06405. 

8 S&SL - January, 1985 



ON THE REEF WITH BOB PURTYMUN: Cerithium . 
Pseudostomatella & Conus . 

We made our first dive of the trip in the lee of Wheeler Reef, about 90 
kilometers N.E. of Townsville, Australia. This was the check-out dive. 
The divemaster was checking us over to see what help he would have to 
give the various divers. The calm water was about 10 m deep and was 
crystal clear over brilliant white sand. As I drifted down I could see 
trails all over; we had anchored over a colony of Cerithium fasciatus 
(Bruguiere, 1792). 

The shells were the largest and most colorful I had ever seen, no two 
were alike. (Kiener, 1841 named this form C. /. procerum). For the next 
61 minutes I worked the sand and coral rubble, occasionally turning a 
coral slab, and ended my dive in only 3 m water behind the reef. 

In all I found 26 different species. I left behind two Conus nussatella 
Linnaeus, 1758 that I found in a jumble of dead antler coral. They were 
tending a cluster of yellow egg capsules, (about 20 flat flakes, 2 mm thick 
and 8-10 mm round). 

BELOW: Cerithium fasciatus 




S&SL - January, 1985 



Some shells were new to me, like the Pseudostomatella maculata (Quoy 
and Gaimard, 1834), which I found on a hard algae-covered substrate 
under a coral slab. 

BELOW: Pseudostomatella maculata 



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Others were old favorites, like the beautiful little Conus boeticus 
Reeve, 1842. This is color form #2 in Jerry Wall's "Cone Shells". I 
question whether his color forms#l and#2 shouldcarry thesame nameas 
the animals are quite different. Also the periostracumon form#l is thin 
and transparent, while on form #2 it is much thicker and has 6 to 8 bands 
of hair-like tufts on the body whorl. I was very happy as I finned my way 
back to the boat, what a great way to start a trip! 



BELOW: Conus boeticus 



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Bob Purtymun, P.O. Box 643, West Point, CA 95255 
10 



S&SL - January, 1985 



The "Cabbage Patch" Snails 

by John Bernard 



In June 1984, 1 sent some landsnails whichl hadfound inmy garden, to 
Dr. [Harry G.] Lee for identification. He replied that they were juvenile 
Mesodon downieanus (Bland, 1861), and that I should look for some adult 
specimens. 

I wasn't sure where they lived in my garden, I just knew they were eat- 
ing it! But I set about looking for some live adult snails for Dr. Lee (I 
never did find a live mature one). 

I do not use chemical sprays or fertilizers on my garden, but the day 
after using a natural insect killer, I found a few large snails and several 
little ones, dead under the plants I had sprayed. 

I hunted in my garden morning, noon and night but to no avail - no 
snails. However, early one morning - 3 am - Iarose andsure enough there 
were several live snails eating my cabbage patch! They were all about 3-4 
mm in length, and I knew from Dr. Lee that these were babies. I collected 
about 20 in a small goldfish bowl and placed aluminum foil on top. I 
thought I was smarter than they, and gave them some dead oak leaves to 
eat, but I am not and they do not. They did not grow much on their diet of 
oak leaves, and they laid no eggs. 

At this time (July 1984) I had a brainstorm and decided to get a bigger 
container for them and to supplement their diet. I placed them in a 5 gal- 
lon fish tank with the oak leaves as well as some cabbage and lettuce 
leaves. I placed this in my room, in which the temperature is 80-85°F in 
the summer. In less than 3 months, there were egg cases on the glass! 
This must be a good hatching temperature because in about 3 weeks there 
were a lot of what looked like little white worms crawling on the glass. 
They were 8 mm long with what looked like a pinhead on top. I took these 
to be little shells. 

At the end of 3 weeks these little worms had grown to have afoot 10 mm 
long and 5 mm wide with a shell of 3.5 mm. The foot at this time was a 
transparent white, and the shell was a golden cream in color. At 6 weeks 
the foot was still white, but not transparent, 13 mm long and 6 mm wide. 
The shell was 6 mm and still a golden color. At 10 weeks the foot was 16 
mm long and 8 mm wide, with the shell now being 15 mm and turning tan 
in color. At 12 weeks the foot was 30 mm long and 11.5 mm wide and 
about 2.5 mm thick. The shell was now 18 mm and a brownish-tan in 
color. 

Dr. Lee told me that they are mature at 15-20 mm but I do not really 
know how big they get, though I have found dead broken ones in my gar- 
den that were almost 30 mm. Who knows how big they will get as they 
now have plenty of what they like toeat? If they need it,I will get thema 
larger home, and even plant a bigger cabbage patch for their food supply! 

Reference 

Binney, W.G.& T.Bland 1869. Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America. Part I.Pulmonata 
Geophila. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections No. 194, i-xii + 1-316, figs. 1-545, pis. 1-4. 

John Bernard, Rt. 8 Box 480, Crossville, TN 38555. 

S&SL - January, 1985 11 



Albino Black 
Abalone Update 

by David W. Behrens 



In 1979 I reported the 
collection of an 
ambicolored "albino" female 
black abalone, Haliotis 
cracherodii Leach, 1817. 
(California Fish & Game 
61(l):54-55). The animal, 
originally collected in 
October, 1975, near Double 
Rock, San Luis Obispo 
County, California, then 
measured 92 mm in length 
and weighed 132 gms. As 
reported the epipodium, 
mantle and eyes of the 
specimen were whitish to 
cream yellow, while the 
mantle cavity, viscera and 
shell were of normal 
coloration. Soon after the 
original publication several 
institutions expressed 
interest in the animal when 
it succumbed. Well, they 
will have a bit longer to 
wait. This unique specimen 
remains quite healthy in 
the display aquarium of the 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co., 
Biological Research 
Laboratory at Diablo 
Canyon, California. After 5 
years it has grown to 129 
mm in length. No weight is 
available as I prefer not to 
remove it from its 
comfortable pose in the 
sanctuary 
of our laboratory. 



David W. Behrens, Route 1 
Box 70- A, Templeton, CA 93465 




12 



S&SL - January, 1985 



The Status of " Murex " funafutiensis Hedley, and some 
Favartia Species. 

by Walter O. Cernohorsky 

Dr. Emily Vokes (1984, Shells and Sea Life, !6(10):160) did solve the 
identity of Murex peasei Tryon 1880, a species now considered 
conspecific with Favartia poormani Radwin and D'Attilio, 1976, from the 
west coast of America. "Favartia peasei" can now be expunged from the 
Pacific muricid nomenclature, and a name must be found for the 
specimen sent by Pease to Tryon and which is in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia No. 36144 (fig. 1). I think this is the species 
Favartia garrettii (Pease, 1868) [a new name for Murex exigua Garrett, 
1857 - not M. exiguus Broderip, 1833], described from rocky coasts of 
Hawaii. This species itself has been misunderstood and specific shell- 
characters have been usually interpreted on the basis of juvenile 
specimens. Although Radwin and D'Attilio (1976) state that the shell 
may reach 5.0 mm, I have seen several large Hawaiian specimens reaching 
almost 14.0 mm in length. Pilsbry (1921) overlooked Garrett's previous 
description and also Pease's re-naming of F. garrettii because he described 




Figures 1-8 

Figures 1-8. Favartia garrettii (Pease). 1. Specimen in ANSP No. 36144, ex-Pease; length 12.6mm. 
2. Very worn holotype of Murex cyclostoma baldwiniana Pilsbry. ANSP No. 127835 from Maui Id., 
Hawaii; length 8.4 mm, width 5.3 mm. 3-4. Specimen from Nawiliwili, Kauai, Hawaii, leg. Dr. 
Haas; length 10.6 mm, width 6.9 mm. 5. Same data, length 12.8 mm, width 7.4mm. 6. Specimen 
from Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, USNM; length 11.7mm, width 7.7 mm. 7-8 . Holotype of Murex 
sykesi Preston from Sri Lanka, B.M.(N.H.) No. 1905.2.8.7.; length 20.8 mm, width 18.0 mm. 



S&SL - January, 1985 



13 



very worn specimens from Kailua and Maui as Murex cyclostoma 
baldwiniana (fig. 2). Favartia species are prone to variation and F. 
garrettii is no exception (see figs. 3-8). One would be hard pressed to try 
and separate F. sykesi Preston, 1904 (figs. 7,8) from Sri Lanka, from F. 
garrettii. It is my opinion that F. garrettii is not endemic to Hawaii but 
has an Indo-Pacific distribution. 




Figures 9-14 

Figures 9- 10. Favartiabrevicula(Sowerby),8yntypeB.M.(N.H) No. 197488; le ngth 26.1 mm, width 

20.6 mm. 
Figures 11-12. " Murex " funafutiensig Hedley. holotype Australian Museum, Sydney No. C-6004; 

length 8.4 mm, width 5.5 mm. 
Figures 13-14. Cronia bicatenata (Reeve) from Sri Lanka, USNM; length 13.3 mm, width 7.0mm. 

"Murex funafutiensis" Hedley, 1899, described from 40-80 fathoms at 
Funafuti, Tuvalu, is another misunderstood species. It was placed in the 
genus Pazinotus by Vokes (1971) and Fair (1976) [which on conchological 
grounds is a reasonable placement], in Favartia by Radwin & D'Attilio 
(1976) and in the subgeneric group Pygmaepterys by Vokes (1984). Both 
Fair and Radwin & D'Attilio did not see actual specimens of the species 
and merely repeated Hedley's original description. The holotype, which 
is probably unique, measures 8.4 mm in length, has 5 mature whorls and 
two and one-half embryonic whorls, 6 varices on the body whorl, 4 
denticles on the outer lip, 3 minute denticles on the base of the columella, 



14 



S&SL - January, 1985 



and distinct, close-set longitudinal striae (figs. 11,12). Although only a 
radular examination will enable us to make a definite generic placement, 
it is my opinion that M. funafutiensis is not congeneric with Favartia. The 
latter genus, as defined by its type-species Favartia brevicula (Sowerby, 
1834)[figs. 9,10], has strong spirally sculptured shells, a short, dorsally 
recurved siphonal canal which is narrowly open or almost closed and the 
aperture is small, ovate and narrowly rimmed. The species "Ricinula" 
bicatenata Reeve, 1846 (figs. 13,14) has none of the features of Favartia 
but is most similar to Cronia (Ergalatax) contracta (Reeve) in shell- 
features, a species known by its thaidine and not muricine radula. 

Literature Cited 

Fair, R.H. 1976. The Murex Book: an Illustrated Catalogue of Recent Muricidae (Muricinae, 

Muricopsinae, Ocenebrinae). Honolulu, 138 pp., 23 pis., text figs. 
Hedley, C. 1899. The Mollusca of Funafuti; Parti. Gastropoda. Mem. Austral. Mus.,3(7):398-488, 

48 text figs. 
Pilsbry, H.A. 1921. Marine Mollusks of Hawaii, XIV-XV. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

72:360-382, text figs. 
Radwin, G E. & A. D ' Attilio 1976. Murex Shells of the World; an Illustrated Guide to the Muricidae. 

Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California, 284 pp., 32 pis., text figs. 
Vokes, E.H. 1971. Catalogue of the Genus Murex Linne (Mollusca: Gastropoda); Muricinae, 

Ocenebrinae. Bull. Amer. Paleont., 6l(268):l-141. 
Vokes, E.H. 1984. On the Identity of " Murex " peasei Try on, and its Generic Placement. Shells and 

Sea Life, 16(10):160-161, text figs. 

Walter O. Cernohorsky, Department of Malacology, Auckland Institute and Museum, Private Bag, 




1 ANNOUNCMENT 



The Delaware Museum of Natu- 
ral History, Greenville , Delaware, 
is pleased to announce the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Barbara H. Butler of 
Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, as 
director. Dr. Butler succeeds Mr. 
Robert L. Dimit who left in 
August, 1984 due to poor health 
following an accident. 

Dr. Butler is looking forward to 
expanding and building on the 
progress of recent years in making 
the Delaware Museum of Natural 
History a viable and vital resource 
in the community. "The building, 
location and collections are out- 
standing," said Dr. Butler, "and, I 
want to help the museum increase 
its role in serving the public and 
scientific community as an educa- 
tional resource. Photo by M.J. 
Arden. 



S&SL - January, 1985 



15 



YOUR COLLECTION — A HOW-TO COLUMN 
No. 6. Why make a Catalog? Susan j. Hewitt 



When you have amassed a good collection, perhaps all from one area, 
nicely labelled lots, everything in order, then you should find yourself 
considering cataloging the collection. 

What does this mean? it means having a list, traditionally in a ledger 
book, or, perhaps now on a computer, of everything that is in your 
collection. Why do I need this? I hear you asking, when I already have 
everything well labelled with information, and I know what I've got, 
more or less. Well, there are several reasons. One good one is that 
someone else, coming to look at your collection would find it hard to know 
what you had from where, without lookingat everythinglot by lot. Even 
if you have the collection arranged by order of classification it might be 
hard to know if you had a particular species, especially if you placed it in 
the wrong family. 

Another excellent reason is that when you catalog a 'lot' (a group of 
specimens of one species collected in the same locality on the same date). 
You give that 'lot' a catalog number, (maybe the first number would be 
00001). Every shell and the label(s) in that lot is given that number. Itis 
usually written on the labelsand on the shells themselves, if they arelarge 
enough, or on a slip of paper securely enclosed in thetube orbox in which 
small shells or specimens are kept. Once a whole drawer of lots has its 
catalog numbers, if you have the misfortune to drop the whole lot on the 
floor, all the specimens and labels can easily be matched up. 

I imagine that appropriate computer software may soon be available 
for cataloging collections. This would certainly be more versatile than 
the ledger system. Data storage and rapid data retrieval are what 
cataloging is all about,and itis precisely these things that computerswere 
originally designed to help us with. 

In the meantime, those of us who are living without computers can 
catalog perfectly well with the antique ledger and pen system. 

Susan J. Hewitt, 75 Leonard St. #4 NE, New York, NY 10013 



Announcement of Open Position 

The Department of Invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, seeks candidates 
for Zoologist GS-11/12/13 (starting at $25,489-36,327 per annum), to perform curatorial functions 
and collections-oriented research in Systematic and Evolutionary Malacology. Candidates will be 
evaluated according to the quality, breadth, progressiveness, and recency of research 
accomplishments (publications) and academic study; museum curatorial and field experience; 
relation of candidate's research to present Department collections and research strengths and needs; 
and the potential for research interaction with other NMNH staff and outside colleagues. 

Submit by 15 February, SF 171 (Personal Qualifications Statement), Curriculum vitae, copiesof 
publications, and statement of long term research goals to: Smithsonian Institution, Office of 
Personnel Administration: 900 Jefferson Drive SW, Rm. 1410, Washington D.C. 20560, ATTN.: 
MPA-85-2F. 

16 S&SL - January, 1985 



Common Names List of North American Marine 

Gastropods, Part 3. American Malacological Union. 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



ORDER GYMNOSOMATA 



Cllonldae 

Cllone llmaclna (Phipps, 1774).... ......A,P,Ac common cllone 

Cllontna lcngicaudata (Souleyet, 1852) A,(P) 

Paedoclione . dolllformls Danforth, 1907., . , A 

Cliopsidae 
Cliopsis krohni Troschel, 1854 A,(P) 



Thliptodontidae 
Thllptodon dlaphanus (Meisenheimer , 1903). . . .. . ..A,P, 



Pneumodermatidae 
Cruclbranchaea macrochira (Meisenheimer, 1905). . ..A, (P). 
P neumoderma atlanticum (Oken, 1815) .....A,(P). 

Notobranchaeidae 

Notobranchaea macdonaldl Pelseneer, 1886. A, (P), 

Prlonoglossa tetrabranchlata (Bonnevie, 1913) A,(P), 

Hydromylidae 
Hydromyle8 globulosa (Rang, 1825) A,P... 

ORDER ASC0GL0SSA 



Cylindrobullidae 

A8cobulla ulla (Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1970. ..A. 

Cyllndrobulla beauil P. Fischer, 1856 A Beau paper-bubble 

Oxynoidae 

Oxynoe antillarum Morch, 1863.......... A Antilles oxynoe 

Oxynoe azuropunctata Jensen, 1980 A,. blue-spot oxynoe 

Lobigeridae 

Lobigeridae souverbiei P. Fischer, 1856 A,(P) Souverbie lobiger 

Juliidae 
Berthelinia caribbea Edmunds, 1963 A. ...Caribbean bivalved snail 

Bosellidae 

Bosellia corinneae Ev. Marcus, 1973 ...A 

Bosellla marcusi Ev. Marcus, 1972 A 

Bosellia mimetica Trinchese, 1891 A 

Elysiidae 

Elysia canguzua Er. Marcus, 1955 .A • ••• 

Elysia catulus Gould, 1870 A kitty cat elysia 

Elysia chlorotica (Gould, 1870) A eastern emerald elysia 

Elysia evellnae Er. Marcus, 1957 A Eveline elysia 

Elysia hedgpethl Er. Marcus, 1961 P Hedgpeth elysia 

Elysia ornata (Swalnson, 1840) .....A ornate elysia 

Elysia papillosa A.E. Verrill, 1901 A papillose elysia 

Elysia patina Ev". Marcus, 1980 A 

Elysia picta A.E. Verrill, 1901 A painted elysia 

Elysia serca Er. Marcus, 1955 A. . .Caribbean seagrass elysia 

Elysia subornata Verrill, 1901 A 

Elysia tuca Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967 A 

S&SL - January, 1985 17 



SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COK ION NAME 



Tridachia crlspat a (Morch, 1863)... A let tree slug 

Costasiellldae 
Costaslella ocelllfera (Slmroth, 1895) A eyespot cos.asiella 

Stillgerldae 

Alderla modesta (Loven, 1844). .................. .A, P.. •••••modest alderla 

Ercolanla coerulea Trlnchese, 1893 .A. ............. .blue stlliger 

Ercolania costal Pruvot-Fol, 1951 A 



Ercolanla funerea (A, Costa, 1867) A 

Ercolania fuscata (Gould, 1870) A dusky stlliger 

Llmapontla zonata Glrard, 1852 • A 

Plea hansineensls Agersborg, 1923 ........P. .Hansine sea slug 

Placida dendritica (Alder and Hancock, 1843) A,P • 

P lacida klngstonl T.E. Thompson, 1977 A 

Stlliger fuscovittatus Lance, 1962 A,P brovm-stre;k stlliger 

Stiliger vossi Ey. Marcus and Er. Marcus, I960.. , ,A, Vons stlliger 

Hermaeidae 

Aplyslopsis enteromorphae 

(Codkerell and Eliot, 1905). ..P 

Aplyslopsis smithl (Er. Marcus, 1961) P 

Aplyslopsis zebra Clark, 1982 A 

Hermaea cruciata Gould, 1870 A 



Hermaea olivae MacFarland, 1966. P. 

Hermaea vancouverensis (O'Donoghue, 1924) A,P, 



Caliphyllidae 

Caliphylla mediterranea A. Costa, 1867 A 

Cyerce antillensis Engel, 1927 A Antilles glass-slug 

Cyerce crlstallina (Trlnchese, 1881)... A harlequin glass-slug 

Mourgona germaineae 

Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1970 A 

Phyllobranchillus virldls (Deshayes, 1857) A, P.. 

ORDER ANASPIDEA 

Akeridae 
Akera thompsoni Olsson and McGinty, 1951 A • 



Aplysiidae 

Aplysia brasiliana Rang, 1828. • • • • • A sooty sea-hare 

Aplysla californica Cooper, 1863 ...P California sea-hare 

Aplysia cervina (Dall and Simpson, 1901) ..A 

Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 .A spotted sea-hare 

Aplysia donca Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1959 A 

Aplysia geographlca (A. Adams and Reeve, 1850), ,,?A 

Aplysia Juliana Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 A,(P) .walking sea-hare 

Aplysia morio A.E. Verrill, 1901 ....A giant black sea-hare 

Aplysia parvula Guilding in^ Morch, 1863 ..A 

Aplysia reticulopoda Beeman, 1960 P net-foot sea-hare 

Aplysia vaccaria Winkler, 1955 .......P. giant black sea-hare 

Aplysia willcoxi Heilprin, 1886 A Willcox sea-hare 

Bursatella leachii pleli Rang, 1828. ...A. ragged sea-hare 

Dolabrifera dolabrifera (Rang, 1828) A,(P) .warty sea-cat 

Notarchus punctatus Philippi , 1836 • • A • 

Petalifera petalifera (Rang, 1828) A,(P) 

Petalifera ramosa Baba, 1959 A 

Phyllaplysia cymodacea K. Clark, 1976 A... 

Phyllaplysla engeli Er. Marcus, 1955 A 

Phyllaplysia smaragda Clark, 1977 A emerald leaf-slug 

Phyllaplysia taylorl Dall, 1900 ,..P zebra leaf -slug 

Stylocheilus citrinus (Rang, 1828) A,(P) 

Stylocheilus longicauda (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825). .A, (P) 

18 S&SL - January, 1985 



SCIENTIFIC NAME O^uRivEiiCE COMMON NAME 



ORDER NOTASPIDEA 
Tylodinidae 

Tylodina amerlcana Dall, 1890 A 

Tylodlna funglna Gabb, 1865 P yellow umbrella shell 

Tylodlnella spongotheras Bertsch, 1980 . .P 

Urabraculldae 
Umbraculum umbraculum (Llghtfoot, 1786). ..A.... .Atlantic umbrella shell 

Pleu robranchidae 

Berthella agasslzll (MacFarland, 1909) A 

Berthella californlca (Dall, 1900) P.. .California side-gill slug 

Berthella sideralis TLovSn, 1847) (A),?P 

Berthella tupala Er. Marcus, 1957 A 

Berthelllna citrina (Ruppell and Leuckart, 1828).. P 

Berthelllna engeli Gardiner, 1936 A,P 

Pleurobranchus areolatus Morch, 1863 • .A, P. • .Atlantic side-gill slug 

Pleurobranchus reesi White, 1952. ................ .A. 



Pleurobranchus strongl MacFarland, 1966 P. 

Pleu robranchaeidae 
Pleurobranchaea bonnieae 

Ev. Marcus and Gosliner, 1984 A. 

Pleurobranchaea californlca MacFarland, 1966 P, 

Pleurobranchaea" confusa 

Ev. Marcus and Gosliner, 1984 A. 

Pleurobranchaea hedgpethi Abbott, 1952 ...A. 

Pleurobranchaea inconspicua Bergh, 1897.. ........ .A. 

Pleurobranchaea occidentalis Bergh, 1897 A. 

Pleurobranchaea tarda A.E. Verrill, 1880 A. 



ORDER NUDIBRANCHIA 



Corarabidae 



Corambe pacifica MacFarland and O'Donoghue, 1929.. P frost-spot corambe 

Doridella burchi Ev. Marcus and Er*. Marcus, 1967.. A.... Burch corambe 

Doridella obscura A.E. Verrill, 1870 A obscure corabme 

Doridella steinbergae (Lance, 1962) P Joan Steinberg corambe 

Goniodorididae 
Ancula evelinae Er. Marcus, 1961 ..A 



Ancula glbbosa (Risso, 1818) A, Ac Atlantic ancula 

Ancula lentiginosa Farmer in_ Farmer and 

Sloan, 1964 P freckled ancula 

Ancula pacifica MacFarland, 1905 P Pacific ancula 

Hopklnsia rosacea MacFarland, 1905 .P Hopkins rose 

Okenia angelensis Lance, 1966 P Angeles okenia 

Okenia ascidicola Morse, 1972 A 



Okenia cupel la (Vogel and Schultz, 1970) A. 

Okenta lmpexa (Er. Marcus, 1957) A, 

Okenia modesta A.E. Verrill. 1875 A, 



Okenia plana Baba, 1960 P flat okenia 

Okenia pulchella Alder and Hancock, 1854 A, Ac • 

Okenia sapelona (Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967). A Sapelo okenia 

Okenia vancouverensls (O'Donoghue, 1921)..... P ..Vancouver okenia 

Okenia zoobotryon (Small wood, 1910) • A 

Trapanla dalva Ev. Marcus, 1972 ..A. 

Trapania velox (Cockerell, 1901) P. swift brown-and-yellow 

nudibranch 
Onchidorididae 

Acanthodoris armata O'Donoghue, 1927,. p >#>> 

Acanthodorls atrogriseata O'Donoghue, 1927... P 

S&SL - January, 1985 19 



SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME 



Acanthodorls brunnea MacFarland, 1905. P,. .Pacific brown spiny dorid 

Acanthodorls caerulescens Bergh, 1880.. P, 

Acanthodorls hudsoni MacFarland, 1905 P 

Acanthodorls lutea MacFarland, 1925 P. ......... .orange peel dorid 

Acanthodorls nanaimoensis O'Donoghue, 1921 P wine-plumed spiny dorid 

Acanthodorls pilosa 

(Ablldgaard in_ O.F. Muller, 1789) A,P,Ac hairy pilooe dorid 

Acanthodorls rhodoceras 

Cockerell ln^ Cockerell and Eliot, 1905. . .P. .. .black-tipped spiny dorid 

Adalarla proxima (Alder and Hancock, 1854) A, Ac yellow false doris 

Onchidorls aspera Alder and Hancock, 1842 ,A t 

Onchldoris bilamellata (Linnaeus, 1767) .A, P, Ac. • .barnacle-eating 

onchidorls 

Onchidorls diademata Gould, 1870 .A 

Onchldoris diaphana Alder and Hancock, 1845 «,A «••■••• 

Onchldoris grisea Gould, 1870 „A 

Onchldoris hystricina (Bergh, 1878) ( ,P fuzzy onchldoris 

Onchidorls muricata (O.F. Muller, 1776) A,P,Ac raurlcate doris 

Onchldoris tenella Gould, 1870 r ,A 

Trlophidae 

Crlmora coneja Marcus, 1961 P........... rabbit dorid 

Triopha catalinae (Cooper, 1863) ......P sea clown triopha 

Triopha maculata MacFarland, 1905 .P. maculated triopha 

Triopha occldentalis (Fewkes, 1889) P grand triopha 

Helerodorididae 

Heterodoris robusta 

A.E. Verrlll and Emerton, 1882 A 

Aegiretidae 

Aegires albopunctatus MacFarland, 1905 P ..salt-and-pepper dorid 

Gymnodoridldae 
Nembrotha gratiosa Bergh, 1890 A , 

Polyceratidae 

Issena pacifica (Bergh, 1894) A,P 

Issena ramosa (A.E. Verrlll and Emerton, 1881). ...A 

Lalla cockerell! MacFarland, 1905 P laila dorid 

Polycera atra MacFarland, 1905. .........P orange-spike polycera 

Polycera aurisula Er. Marcus, 1957 ....A Marcus polycera 

Polycera chilluna Er. Marcus, 1961... A...... 

Polycera dubia (M. Sars , 1829) A 

Polycera hedgpethl Er. Marcus, 1964 P Hedgpeth western 

polycera 

Polycera humml Abbott, 1952.... A.... ....Humm polycera 

Polycera odhneri Er. Marcus, 1955 A.. 

Polycera rycia Ev. Marcus, 1970 A 

Polycera tricolor Robllllard, 1971 P three-color polycera 

Polycera zosterae O'Donoghue, 1924 .P. ......... .eelgrass polycera 

Polycerella conyna Er. Marcus, 1957 A • 

Polycerella davenportii Balch, 1899 A 

Polycerella emerton! A.E. Verrlll, 1881 A 

Cadlinidae 

Cadlina f lavomaculata MacFarland, 1905 P yellow-spot cadllna 

Cadllna laevis (Linnaeus, 1767) A, Ac. ..white Atlantic cadlina 

Cadllna llmbaughl Lance, 1962 P 

Cadlina marglnata MacFarland, 1905 P yellow-rim cadlina 

Cadlina modesta MacFarland, 1966 P modest cadlina 

Cadlina pacifica Bergh, 1879 P 

Cadllna rutnia Er. Marcus , 1955 A.... •• 

Cadlina scabriuscula (Bergh, 1890) A 

20 S&SL - January, 1985 



SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME 



Cadllna 9parsa Odhnev, 1921 , P dark-spot cadlina 

Chromodoridldae 

Chromodorls alia Er. Marcus, 1961..., A alia blue dorld 

Chromodoris clench! (H.D. Russell, 1935) A neona blue dorls 

Chromodorls dalll (Bergh, 1879) P 

Chromodorls macfarlandl Cockerell, 190] P MacFarland blue dorld 

Chromodorls nyalya 

Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967 A 

Chromodorls roseoplcta (A.E. Verrill, J900) ?. 

Fellmare bayerl Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967.. .A.. 

Hypselodorls califomiensls (Bergh, 1879) P California blue dorld 

Hypselodorls edenticulata (White, 1952) A Florida regal dorld 

Mexlchromls porterae (Cockerell, 1901)., P Porter blue dorld 

Asteronotidae 

Aphelodorls antlllensis (Bergh, 1879)... A 

Sclerodorls tanya (Ev. Marcus, 1971)..,..... P feline dorld 

Actinocy -.lidae 
Hallaxa chanl Gosllner and Williams, 1975.... P 

Conualeviidae 

Conualevia alba Collier and Farmer, 1964 P. ....white smooth-horn dorld 

Aldisidae 

Aldisa cooperi Robilliard and Baba, 1972 P 

Aldisa sanguinea (Cooper, 1863) P blood spot dorld 

Aldisa zetlandica (Alder and Hancock, 1854) A, Ac. 

Rostangidae 
Rostanga pulchra MacFarland, 1905..... P.*. red sponge dorid 

Dorididae 

Doris odonoghuel Steinberg, 1963........ ...P 

Doris verrucosa Linnaeus, 1758..... A.. 

Siraius kyolis Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967.. . .A. kyolis dorld 

Dendrodorldidae 

Dendrodoris krebsii (Morch, 1863) A,(P) Krebs dorid 

Dendrodorls warta Ev. Marcus and Gallagher, 1976. .A 

Doriopsilla albopunctata (Cooper, 1863).. P salted yellow dorid 

Doriopsilla areolata (Bergh, 1880) A 

Doriopsilla lela Er. Marcus, 1961 A 

Doriopsilla nlgromaculata 

(Cockerell in Cockerell and Eliot, 1905). .P tiny black-spot dorid 

Doriopsilla pharpa Er. Marcus, 1961 A 

Phyllidiidae 

Phyllidlopsis papilligera Bergh, 1890 A 

Archidorididae 

Archldorls montereyensis (Cooper, 1863) P Monterey sea lemon 

Archldorls odhnerl (MacFarland, 1966) P white night dorid 

Atagema alba (O'Donoghue, 1927) P hunchback dorid 

Atagema prea (Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967).. ..A. 

Discodorididae 

Anisodorls nobllls (MacFarland, 1905) P Pacific sea lemon 

S&SL - January, 1985 21 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



Anlsodorls prea Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967... A , .. 

Anlsodorls lentlglnosa Mlllen, 1982 P... .. .mottled pale sea lemon 

Anlsodorls work! Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967.. A 

Dlaulula sandlegensls (Cooper, 1863) P. ringed dorld 

Dlscodorls alba White, 1952 A 

Discodoris heathi MacFarland, 1905 P Heath gritty dorid 

Discodoris evelinae Er. Marcus, 1955 A........ 

Discodoris phoca Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1959.. A 

Discodoris purcina 

Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967... A.... 

Discodoris pusae Er. Marcus , 1955. ....A.. 

Geitodoris complanata (A.E. Verrill, 1880) A 

Peltodoris greeleyl MacFarland, 1909 A 

Taringa aivica timia 

Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967.... P.. dusky brown taringa 

Taringa telopla disa 

Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967 A......... 

Thordisa bimaculata Lance, 1966...... .....P • two-spot thordis 

Thordisa rubescens Behrens and Henderson, 1981.... P .......red thordis 

Kentrodorididae 

Jorunna pardus Behrens and Henderson, 1981... P. .......... ..leopard jorunna 

Platydorididae 

Platydoris angustlpes (Morch, 1863) ....A....... 

Platydoris macfarlandl Hanna, 1951 P MacFarland flat dorid 

Tritoniidae 

Tochuina tetraquetra (Pallas, 1788).... P giant orange tochui 

Trltonia bayeri Ev. Marcus, 1978. ....A.. Bayer tritonia 

Tritonla bayerl misa Er. Marcus, 1967. ........... .A. ... .« 

Tritonia diomedea Bergh, 1894 A,P rosy tritonia 

Tritonia festiva (Stearns, 1873) P diaraondback tritonia 

Tritonia palmeri (Cooper, 1862) ....P 

Tritonia wellsi Er. Marcus, 1961 A 

Hancockiidae 

Hancockla californica MacFarland, 1923 .P. ...... ...Hancock nudibranch 

Dendronotidae 

Dendronotus albopunctatus Robilliard, 1972 ...P 

Dendronotus albus MacFarland, 1966 P whitef rond aeolid 

Dendronotus dalli Bergh, 1879 P Dall frond aeolid 

Dendronotus dlversicolor Robilliard, 1970. P multicolor frond aeolid 

Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanlus, 1774) A,P,Ac frond aeolid 

Dendronotus iris Cooper, 1863.. P .....giant frond aeolid 

Dendronotus robustus A.E. Verrilll, 1870 • A robust frond aeolid 

Dendronotus rufus O'Donoghue, 11921 ..P.... red frond aeolid 

Dendronotus subramosus MacFarland, 1966. ........ ..P. stubby frond aeolid 

Tethyidae 

Melibe leonina (Could, 1852) P lion nudibranch 

Loraanotidae 
Lomanotus stauberl Clark and Goetzfried, 1976..... A.. 

Scyllaeidae 
Scyllaea pelagica Linnaeus, 1758. A, (P). . ..sargassum nudibranch 

22 S&SL - January, 1985 



SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME 



Phylllroidae 

Phylllroe atlantlca Bergh, 1871 A 

Phylllroe bucephalum P6ron and Lesueur, 1810......A ••••••••••••• 

Dotoldae 

Doto amyra Er. Marcus, 1961 P hammerhead doto 

Doto chlca Er. Marcus, 1960 A 

Doto columblana O'Donoghue, 1921 P British Columbia doto 

Dot o coronata (Gmelln, 1791) • .A. ...,.,........,, .crown doto 

Doto dlvae Er. Marcus , 1960 A 

Doto doerga Ey. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1963 A....... 

Doto formosa A.E. Verrlll, 1875 A ; 

Doto kya Er. Marcus, 1961 P dark doto 

Doto pita Er. Marcus, 1955 A 

Doto uva Er. Marcus, 1955 A 

Mlesea evellnae (Er. Marcus, 1957) A. 

Arralnldae 

Armlna tlgrlna Raf lnesque, 1814 A.. tiger armlna 

Armlna calif ornlca (Cooper, 1863) P California armlna 

Dironldae 

Dlrona albollneata Macfarland in Cockerell and 

ITlot, 1905 P white-line dirona 

Dlrona aurantia Hurst , 1966. .P. .golden dlrona 

Dlrona picta Macfarland ^in^ Cockerell 

and Eliot, 1905... P painted dirona 

Janolidae 

Antiopella barbarensis (Cooper, 1863) P cockscomb nudlbranch 

Coryphellidae 

Coryphella cooper! Cockerell, 1901 P.. blue-patch aeolld 

Coryphella dlversa (Couthouy, 1839) A 

Coryphella fusca O'Donoghue, 1921 P.... predaceous aeolld 

Coryphella iodinea (Cooper, 1863) .P purple aeolld 

Coryphella longicaudata O'Donoghue, 1922 P long-tail aeolld 

Coryphella nobllis A.E. Verrill, 1880 A 

Coryphella pelluclda (Alder and Hancock, 1843). . ..A. pellucid aeolld 

Coryphella" prlcei MacFarland, 1966... P. smooth-tooth aeolld 

Coryphella 9almonacea (Couthouy, 1839) A,P,Ac ....salmon aeolld 

Coryphella subrosacea (Eschscholtz, 1831) P 

Coryphella trilineata O'Donoghue, 1921 P three-line aeolld 

Coryphella trophina (Bergh, 1894) P 

Coryphella verrucosa ruf lbranchlalis 

(Johnston, 1832). A, (P), Ac.. ....red-finger aeolld 

Eubranchidae 

Eubranchus conlcla (Er. Marcus, 1958) A conlcla aeolld 

Eubranchus columblanus (O'Donoghue, 1922) P.......... 

Eubranchus exiguus (Alder and Hancock, 1848). A, Ac dwarf balloon aeolld 

Eubranchus mlsakiensis Baba, i960.. ,,P misaki balloon aeolld 

Eubranchus ollvaceus (O'Donoghue, 1922).. P.. . . . . . .green balloon aeolld 

Eubranchus pallldus (Alder and Hancock, 1842) A 

Eubranchus rustyus (Er. Marcus, 1961) .P rustya aeolld 

Eubranchus sanjuanensls Roller, 1972 .P 

Eubranchus tricolor (Forbes, 1838) A, Ac. ..painted balloon aeolld 

Cumanotidae 

Cumanotus beaumontl (Eliot, 1906) ..P. polyp aeolld 

S&SL - January, 1985 23 



SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME 



Tergipedidae 

Catrlona Columbians (O'Donoghue, 1922).... P red-tentacle cuthona 

Catrlona gymnota (Couthouy, 1838) .A.. 

Catrlona maua Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, i960 A.,... maua cuthona 

Catrlona rlckettsl Behrens, 1934 P 

Cuthona abronla (MacFarland, 1966) P colorful cuthona 

Cuthona albocrusta (MacFarland, 1966) P white-crust cuthona 

Cuthona aurantla (Alder and Hancock, 1842) ...A, Ac orange-tip cuthona 

Cuthona" cocoachroma Williams and Gosliner, 1979... P brown cuthona 

Cuthona conclnna (Alder and Hancock, 1843) A,P ....concise cuthona 

Cuthona flavovulta (MacFarland, 1966) P.... yellowish cuthona 

Cuthona fulgens (MacFarland, 1966) P.... black and yellow cuthona 

C uthona lagu nae (O'Donoghue, 1926)....,.,. ,.P .oranged-face cuthona 

Cuthona n ana (Alder and Hancock, 1842) ......A 

Cuthon a perca (Er. Marcus, 1958) A, P.. . . ,. . .Lake Merritt cuthona 

Cuthona phoenix Gosliner, 1981 ...... ..P bornagain cuthona 

Cuthona " pustulata (Alder and Hancock, 1845) ?A. 

Cuthona stimpsoni~ A.E. Verrill, 1880 A 

Cuthona tlna (ErT Marcus, 1957) A 

Cuthona veronica (A.E. Verrill, 1880) A 

C uthona vlrens TMacFarland, 1966).. .P.... ..green cuthona 

Precuthona d lvae Er. Marcus, 1961. ............... .P rose-pink cuthona 

Tenellla adspersa (Nordmann, 1845).. P .miniature aeolid 

Tenellla fuscata Gould, 1870 A 

Tenellla ventilabrum (Dalyell, 1853) A 

Terglpes terglpes (Forskal, 1775).. • A, Ac. . .Johnston balloon aeolid 

Fionidae 

Fiona pinnata (Eschscholtz in Rathke, 1831) A, P..... fiona 

Babakinidae 

Babaklna festiva (Roller, 1972) , ..P single-stalk aeolid 

Facelinidae 
Austraeolis catina 



Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967. A..... ••••••••• * 

C ratena kaoruae Er. Marcus, 1957 A • • 

Cra tena pilata (Gould in Binney, 1870) A 

Dondlce occidentalls (Engel, 1925)....... ..A ......western dondice 

Emarcusia morroensls Roller, 1972..... ..P., ..... .orange-blotch aeolid 

Facelina bostonlensls (Couthouy, 1838). B ......... .A. ........... .Boston facelina 

Facelina stearnsl Cockerell, 1901... P scarlet-tip aeolid 

Favorinus auritulus Er. Marcus, 1955 ..A. 

Godlva rubrolineata Edmunds , 1964 A. 

H ermlssenda crassicornis 

(Eschscholtz in Rathke, 1831) P. herraissenda 

Learchl s poica Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1960. . , .A 

Phidlana hlltoni (O'Donoghue, 1927) P pugnaceous aeolid 

P hldlana lynceus Bergh, 1 86 7.. ....,....<.......... A. 

Sakuraeqlls enoslmensis (Baba, 1930) ..P.. white-tentacle Japanese 

aeolid 

Aeolidiidae 

Aeolidla papillosa (Linnaeus, 1761) ., A,P,Ac shag rug aeolid 

Aeolidiella takanosimensis Baba, 1930 P..verraillion Japanese aeolid 

Cerberllla mosslandica McDonald and 

Nybakken, 1975. ..P brown burrowing aeolid 

Cerberllla tanna Er. Marcus, 1959 A 

Spurillidae 

Baeolidla benteva Er. Marcus, 1958 A 

Berghia verrucicornis (O.G. Costa, 1864) A......... 

Spurilla chromosoma Cockerell in_ Cockerell 

and Eliot, 1905 P frosted spurilla 

24 S&SL - January, 1985 



SCIENTIFIC NAME OCCURRENCE COMMON NAME 

Spurilla neapolitana (Delle Chiaje, 1823) A,(P) neapolltan spurilla 

Spurilla oliviae (MacFarland, 1966) P red-tentacle spurilla 

Glaucidae 

Glaucus atlanticus Forster, 1777 ,.A,(P) blue glaucus 

ORDER ARCHAEOPULMONATA 

Melarapidae 

Apodopsis novimundi Pilsbry and McGinty, 1949 A 

Blauneria heteroclita (Montagu, 1808) A 

Detracia bulloides (Montagu, 1808) A bubble melampus 

Detracia clarki Morrison, 1951 A Clark melampus 

Detracia floridana (Pfeiffer, 1856) A Florida melampus 

Ellobium pellucens (Menke, 1830) A 

Laemodonta cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1854) A Cuba dwarf pedipes 

Marinula succinea (Pfeiffer, 1854) A Pfeiffer marinula 

Melampus bidentatus Say, 1822 A eastern melampus 

Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758) A. coffee melampus 

Melampus monilis (Bruguiere, 1789) A... Caribbean melampus 

Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 P California melampus 

Ovatella myosotis (Draparnaud, 1801) A,P 

Pedipes angulatus C.B. Adams, 1852 P ...angular pedipes 

Pedipes mlrabilis (Muhlfeld, 1816) .A.. ....... .miraculous pedipes 

Pedipes unisulcatus Cooper, 1866 P one-groove pedipes 

Tralia ovula (Bruguiere, 1789) A egg melampus 

ORDER BASOMMATOPHORA 

Trimusculidae 

Trimusculus carinatus (Dall, 1870) A carinate gadinia 

Trimusculus reticulatus (Sowerby, 1835) P reticulate gadinia 

Sipbonariidae 

Siphonaria alternata Say, 1826 A Say false limpet 

Siphonaria brannani Stearns, 1872 P 

Siphonaria pectinata (Linnaeus, 1758) A striped false limpet 

Siphonaria thersites Carpenter, 1864 P Carpenter false limpet 

Williamia krebsii (Morch, 1877) A Krebs false limpet 

Williamia peltoides (Carpenter, 1864) P pelta false limpet 

ORDER SYSTELLOMMATOPHORA 
Onchidiidae 

Onchidella borealis Dall, 1871 P northwest onchidella 

Onchidella carpenter! Binney, 1860 P Carpenter onchidella 

Onchidella floridana (Dall, 1885) A Florida onchidella 

This completes the section on marine gastropods for North America. 
Remember, this is a "Suggested Draft List." It represents currently 
"published" systematic arrangement. If you note errors or omissions 
within the published scientific literature, send your comments to the 
editor. Comments will be incorporated with updates to this list and 
published in Shells and Sea Life issues periodically. Still to come are 
lists of scaphopods, polyplacophorans, monoplacophorans, cephalopods, 
freshwater gastropods, and all bivalves. 

S&SL - January, 1985 25 




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26 



S&SL - January, 1985 



Sand Trails. 

by Stephanie Prince 



On a trip to San Felipe, Baja, California I was fortunate to find several 
beautiful Oliva incrassata Lightfoot, 1786. We had a good low tide and 
the water was a good 1/4 of a mile out when we walked to the tide line. 
We walked out over the exposed silt, often sinking to our knees in mud. 

We found many shells; the most abundant being Oliva incrassata. Some 
of the olives were as large as 65 mm and their sand trails looked like a 
small bulldozer had been at work (see photo). Smaller trails usually led to 
an Olivella or other species. 




Oliva incrassata sand trail, (note also the Olivella trails near the large trail). 
Photo by David K. Mulliner 

Two olive forms from this area are most prized by collectors- a golden 
yellow form O. i. burchorum Zeigler, 1969, and beautiful albino form O. i. 
nivea Pilsbry, 1910. There is also an extremely rare unnamed black form 
reported to come from the San Felipe area. Unfortunately, none of the 
rarer forms were found on this trip. 



Stephanie Prince, c/o De Portola School, 27031 Preciados, Mission Viejo, CA 92667 

S&SL - January, 1985 



27 



The Camaenidae: A Diverse Family of Land Mollusks 

(Part 1). Richard L. Goldberg 

The Camaenidae Moellendorff, 1898, are a large and widespread 
family of land mollusks, exhibiting an extremely diverse range of shape, 
form and size. Some of the popular genera included in this group are 
Pleurodonte of the West Indies, Central and South America, Obba of the 
Philippines and north central Indonesia, Papuina of New Guinea and the 
Soloman Islands, Amphidromus of southeast Asia, Philippines and 
Indonesia, and the Indo-Chinese genus Camaena, among others. There is 
an absence of Camaenid species from Tasmania, Southwest Australia, Ar- 
gentina, Chile, all of the African Continentand theMalagasy Republic. A 
synonym of Camaenidae is Pleurodontidae von Ihering, 1912. 

The Camaenids* diversity of shell structure and shape rival that of any 
other family of terrestrial mollusks. The type species of the genus 
Camaena Albers, 1850, C. cicatricosa (O.F. Mueller, 1774) (Fig. l),is in fact 
a sinistral species. The genus Camaena is made up of rather large, thick- 
shelled species with a center of distribution in Southeast Asia. Both sin- 
istral and dextral forms are found in the genus. Many form names have 
been proposed for C. cicatricosa, but their validity is doubtful since the 
species varies greatly in individual populations. The habitatdata sentto 
me for some specimens collected in Canton, China was, "taken from gar- 
bage dump!" 

A subgenus of Camaena, Pseudobba Moellendorff, 1891, is an interest- 
ing group restricted to the high elevations of the northern Celebes and 
Sangir, Indonesia. The type species of the subgenus is P. mamilla 
(Ferussac) (Fig 2). The nominate forms of this group are characterised 
by their typical Camaenid shape, and wrinkled surface. However, 
Rench (1933) described a smooth form of P. mamilla called crassiventris 
from Mengkoka-Gebirge, Celebes. Other forms of P. mamilla have been 
described for wider and narrower specimens. The largest species of this 
subgenus is P. quoyi (Deshays), reaching almost two inches in diameter. 
Pseudobba species are rare in collections, probably due to their 
inaccessible habitat. 

BELOW: Chloritis ungulina (Linnaeus), Ceram, Indonesia, 44 mm. 




28 S&SL - January, 1985 



Camaena 

cicatricosa 

(Mueller), 

Volskpark, 

Canton, 

China, 

46 mm. 



Camaena 

(Pseudobba) 

mamilla 

(FSrussac), 

Celebes, 

Indonesia. 

37 mm. 



Chloritis 
maforenBis 
(Tapparone 
Canefri), Sorong, 
Western New 
Guinea (Irian 
Jay a), 25 mm. 



Albersia granulata 
(Quoy & 
G aimard) , 
Waigeo Island, 
off Western 
New Guinea, 
54 mm. 




S&SL - January, 1985 



29 



The genus Chloritis Beck, 1837, is another group of rather large, solid 
helical-shaped mollusks with a distribution from New Guinea, Soloman 
Islands, through Indonesia. C.ungulina (Linnaeus, 1857) (Fig. 3) is the type 
species of the genus, and is characterised by its deep umbilicus and 
sunken spire. It is reported to be found in the Moluccas 
and Indonesia (Tapparone Canefri, 1883). Specimens at the American 
Museum of Natural History have the basic data of Ceram. I know of no 
recently collected specimens of C. ungulina, and it is very rare in private 
collections. 

Another similar species of the genus Chloritis, is C. maforensis 
(Tapparone Canefri, 1886) (Fig. 4), from Western New Guinea (now 
Iraian Jaya, Indonesia). This striking species also has a deep umbilical 
region and sunken spire. The type locality is Maf or Island, Western New 
Guinea. C. circumdata (Ferussac) is an almost identical species from the 
neighboring Aru Islands, and C. maforensis may be in fact a subspecies or 
form of circumdata. Since no specimens have been collected recently, fur- 
ther research is needed to determine the exact identity of the twospecies. 

Not all species of Chloritis exhibit the sunken spire and deep umbilicus. 
Seven subgenera cover a wide variety of other species found in Indonesia, 
Australia, the Soloman Islands and New Guinea. 

A genus closely related to Chloritis is Albersia H. Adams, 1865. The 
type species is A. granulata (Quoy & Gaimard) (Fig. 5). This group is 
characterised by its rather globose helical, unicolored and thin shells. 
The type locality of A. granulata is Port Dorey, New Guinea, island of 
Waigeo, (Western New Guinea). The species of Albersia range from New 
Guinea to the Moluccas. Not visible in the illustration of A. granulata is 
the fine granular, almost stippled surface of the shell. Specimens of A. 
granulata are considered quite rare, also due to their inaccessible habitat. 

In future parts of this article, other genera of world wide Caniaenidae 
will be discussed. In the next part, I will cover the New World genera 
including Pleurodonte, Labrinthus, Zachrysia, and other related forms. 

References 

van Benthem Jutting, W.S.S. 1958. Non-Marine Mollusca of the Island of Misool. Nova Guinea, new 

ser., 9(2):293-338. 
van Benthem Jutting, W.S.S. 1959. Non-Marine Mollusca of the North Moluccan Islands 

Halmahera, Ternate, Batjan and Obi. Treubia, 25(l):25-87. 
Pilsbry, H.A. 1891. Gen. Albersia . Manual of Conchology, Sec. Ser., pp. 89-92. 

Pilsbry, H.A. 1939. Land Mollusca of North America. 1, part 1, pp. 410-567. 
Rensch, B. 1933. Revision und Ergansung der Sarasinschen Rassenkreise celebesischer 

Landschnecken. Mitt. ant. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 19:19-120. 
Smith, B.J. & R.C. Kershaw 1979. Field Guide to the Non-Marine Molluscs of South Eastern 

Australia. Austral. Nat. Univ. Press, pp. 1-285. 
Solem, A. 1978. Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Camaenid Land Snails from Western North America. 

Journ. Paleontol., 52(3):581-589. 
Tapparone Canefri, C. 1883. Intorno Ad Alcuni Molluschi Terrestri delle Molucche e di Selebes. 

Ann. del Mus. Civ. di St. Nat. de Genova. pp. 1-35. 
Tapparone Canefri, C. 1883. Fauna Malacologica della Nuova Guinea Parte I - Molluschi 

Estramarini. Tipog. del R. Istit. Sordo-Muti, Genova, pp. 1-313. 
Tapparone Canefri, C. 1886. Fauna Malacologia della Nuova Guinea - Suppiemento I., pp. 1-87. 
Wurz, C.B. 1955. The American Camaenidae. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 107:99-143. 
Yen, T.C. 1939. Die chinesischen Land- und Suesswasser-Gastropoden des Natur-Museums 

Senckenberg. Frankfurt am Main, pp. 1-204. 
Zilch, A. 1959-1960. Gastropoda. Euthyneura. Handb. Palaeosoologie, 6:596-626. 

Richard Goldberg, P.O. Box 137, Fresh Meadows, NY 11365. 

30 S&SL - January, 1985 



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31 



PERSONAL NOTES 

From James Blaser: Enclosed is my renewal check .... Congratulations 
on the quality of SHELLS and SEA LIFE. Illustrations are superb. 
Proofreaders are obviously at work. Many articles are outside my own 
fields of interest, but they are so well presented and illustrated that I 
enjoy and learn from them. At one time or another, since becoming inter- 
ested in malacology in 1956, 1 have recieved a multitude of publications, 
scientific and popular. SHELLS and SEA LIFE and HAWIIAN SHELL 
NEWS are now my two contacts with the malacological world. 

The beautiful illustrated article by Dr. Vokes epitomizes the joys and 
frustrations of shellstudy. Many familiarspecies are illustrated anddis- 
cussed, but the nomenclature is impossible. Esoteric changes seem to 
occur endlessly. The comment "... no members of Murex s.s. in the New 
World..." (p. 215, Note 1.) leavesme hopelessly confused. I fearl shallcon- 
tinue to file the humble apple Murex under Murex pomum Gmelin. No 
Phyllonotus, Chicoreus, Hexaplex, or Murexiella for me. The splitters are 
triumphant. [James Blaser, 1846 Laurel Lane, Amhurst, OH 44001]. 

From Luis D. Beltr&n: I would appreciate if you, or any of the readers 
of Shells and Sea Life can give me any further information on where I 
can contact Dr. Thomas V. Borkowski, who has done a great deal of 
research on the mollusks of rocky intertidal shores, especiallyon theperi- 
winkles (genus Littorina). I have inquired of Dr. (R. Tucker) Abbott on 
the subject, as well as Dr. Joseph Rosewater (Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington DC), but none of them seem to know where he might be at 
present. Thanks for your attention, and keep up the good work on your 
fine journal. [Luis D. Beltran, Ernesto Cadiz St. #26, Juncos, P.R. 00666] 



From Manuel Ballesteros: I send 
you the logo of a divers club we 
have founded at the biology fac- 
ulty of the Barcelona University 
and named C.I.B., of which I am the 
president. The logo was drawn by 
Daniel Martin, a biologist and 
managing member of the club. 
The nudibranch is Platydoris 
atromaculata, a common species 
from the Mediterranean sea. Our 
objectives are to popularise marine 
biology between the current people 
and to encourage future marine 
biologists by means of diving 
courses. [Manuel Ballesteros 

Vazquez, Dept. Zoologica, Fac. 
Biologica, University Barcelona, 
Av. Diagonal, 637-647, Barcelona - 
28, Spain]. 




32 



S&SL - January, 1985 




From Gerard Venken: Enclosed 
is a picture I took myself at the 
yearly big day of the Dutch- 
Belgium Shell Association. Many 
people had their stand to sell their 
sometimes highly valued shells 
(like a fabulous Strombus goliath 
nearly unchipped, big smooth col- 
ored mouth + operc: $200.00 
approximately). I made a stand on 
SHELLS and SEA LIFE there too. 
My association enjoyed my idea 
and even took the issues home to 
study them. They all find it 
mighty good work but for the 
moment the exchange rate is poor 
in relation to the dollar, (now 
approximately 62 Belgian Francs 
they used to be 50 and once stood 
28. I am happy with the issues and 
this year too I will stay a member. 
[Ed. Subscriptions may now be paid 
in most foreign currencies. We 
hope this makes it easier for your 
friends to subscribe.] [Gerard 
Venken, Schoolstraat 21, B-3500 
Hasselt, Belgium] 



Sally and Travis Payne won the 
DuPont Trophy at the Cincinnati 
Shell Club's third Tri-State Shell 
Show October 13-14, for their 
exhibit entitled H Phylum Mol- 
lusca", which showed the charac- 
teristics and habitats of the seven 
classes of mollusks. 

The COA, Display Techniques 
Award, Peoples Choice Award, and 
Exhibitors Choice Award all went 
to Judith Brooks of the Crown 
Point Shell Club for her marvelous 
exhibit of Cypraea. 

Shell of the Show went to 
Roberta Cranmer's beautiful 
Conus aurisiacus. 




S&SL - January, 1985 



33 



3 




Seashell Stamps. Tom Rice 



FINALLY!! On September 21, 1984 Postmas- 
ter General William F. Bolger announced 
designs for U.S. SEASHELL STAMPS! The 
fact that the United States would issue a book- 
let with shell-design stamps had been made 
known months ago and the booklet was origi- 
nally scheduled for release in 1984. It has 
been delayed until some time in 1985. 

The seashell booklet will consist of two 
panes of stamps, each pane having 10 stamps, 
two each with the 5 shell designs. From top to 
bottom of the pane, the stampsshow: thefrilled 
dogwinkle, the reticulated helmet, New 
England neptune, calico scallop and lightning 
whelk. The denomination of the stamps likely 
will be 22 cents each. 

So, finally, the United States joins the ranks 
of those countries with seashell stamps. About 
time too! 

Tom Rice, Of Sea and Shore Museum, Port Gamble, WA98364. 



Mary "Pecten" Flenz won the du Pont Trophyat theSanta Barbarashell 
show October 13-14, 1984, for her exhibit on the new seashell stamps fea- 
turing shells. Congratulations Mary (and John)! See photo below. 




S&SL - January, 1985 



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S&SL - January, 1985 



35 



Photographic Techniques. 

David K. Mulliner 

These shells were photographed with a 
Nikon camera witha micro55 lens(adding 
a bellows when the shell was less than 
20mm). I always set the aperture at F22 or 
F32 to obtain maximum depth of field (to 
keep it all in focus). Theshells wereplaced 
on a wire rod (using sticky wax) above a 
black velvet background. Two photof lood 
lights were placed at a 45°angle above and 
opposite the shell with a black cardboard 
tent-like arrangement toprevent thelights 
from shining on the velvet. I used 
tungsten film at the exposure indicated 
by the meter reading with a 1/4 stop each 
side (bracketing exposures is necessary to 
obtain the best color rendition). 

The illustrated shells were collected on 
the exposed reefs, and by snorkeling and 
SCUBA diving in deeper water at the 
Vava'u Island group, Tonga, South Pacific 
in May, 1978. 

David K. Mulliner, 5283 Vickie Drive 

San Diego, CA 92109 
AT RIGHT: Scabricola desetangsii (Kiener, 1838), 28mm. 
BELOW: Natica violacea Sowerby, 1825, 17mm. 





36 



S&SL - January, 1985 




ABOVE: Cypraea humphreysii Gray, 1825, 11mm. 

BELOW: 

Conus imperialis Linnaeug. 1758, 60mm. Imbricaria conularis (Lamarck. 1811), 12mm. 




S&SL - January, 1985 



37 



CLASSIFIED ADS 

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Free price list. Sea Gems; 2002 Margaret Drive; 
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SHELLS ON STAMPS. Send self- addressed 
stamped envelope for current price list. World 
Stamps; Box 20041; Houston, TX77225. 

BEAUTIFUL WORLDWIDE landshells, 
freshwater, marines. Free list. Trades, Pete 
Krull; 7128 Natalie Bl.; Northfield, OH44067. 

SHELLOAK SPECIMEN SHELLS; Rt. 8, Box 
480; Crossville, TN38555. Buy - Exchange - 
Sell. Write for free monthly list. "Let's work 
together to fill your every need, shell we?" 

LARGEST SELECTION of worldwide spec- 
imen shells in the Tampa Bay area. Free price 
list. The Shell Store; 440 75th Ave.; St. 
Petersburg Beach, FL33706. Phone: 813-360- 
0586. Visit our shop when you're in the area! 

THE GREEN LION'S PAW, Edgar C. 
Haviland. 312 No. Osceola Ave., Clearwater, 
FL33515. 1 buy and shell the finest quality spec- 
imen shells. Please send stamp for new list. 

BUSINESS CARDS, send sample layout for 
free quote. Seashell Treasures Books, 505 E. 
Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 85012. 

AUSTRALIAN & WORLDWIDE specimen 
shells. Free price lists. Keith Hooke; 16 Baldwin 
Ave.; Noble Park 3164, Victoria, Australia. 

SOME GOOD SHELLS from British 
Columbia, including chitons. Retail only. Free 
list. G.B. Jeffrey; 3820 Bowen Dr.; Richmond, 
B.C.; Canada V7C 4E. 

COMMON SHELLS - great low prices! Free 
list w/SASE. Timbers; 4636 Arrowhead Dr.; 
Apex, NC27502. 

PLASTIC BAGS, all types & sines. Free price 
list on request. Seashell Treasures Books, 505 E. 
Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 85012. 



For Sale - Wholesale 

RICK GREGORY; 1219 South BananaRiver 
Dr.; Merritt Island, FL32952. Wholesale 
distributor of Florida seashells Pectennodosus . 
Spondylus americanus. 

SEASHELLS BY MARIA OF CAPE COD; 
290 W. Main St.; Hyannis, MA02601. Large 
quantities Atlantic Bay Scallops - other 
indigenous species available. Retail & whole- 
sale. Free lists. 

SHELLS - CORALS - SOUVENIRS - Shell 
Jewelry. U.S. largest conch shell dealer. Over 
one acre of items to choose from. Atlantic Coral 
Enterprise; 2280 S.W. 66 Terr.; Fort 
Lauderdale, FL33317 (305) 475-9040. 

DEEP-WATER TRAWLED South African 
specimen shells Wholesale only. R. Le Maitre; 14 
Picardy Ave.; Nature's Valley, Somerset West 
7130, Republic of South Africa. 

EXPORTER OF BUTTERFLY, insect, bee- 
tles, scorpion, dry-flower & leaves. Also Buy & 
Exchange. Bililand Enterprises; 28 Hala Taman 
Tambun Satu, Tambun, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. 

Rentals 

SHELLING & FISHING from Marco Island. 
Reasonable rates and good accomodations. 
Bianchi's Pink House Eff. Motel; 310 Pear Tree 
Ave.; Goodland, FL33933. Telephone (813)- 
394-3498. 

Wanted 

COMMERCIAL & SPECIMEN shells, 
prepared marine life, insects, curio items 
wanted. Price lists requested. Diana Pierre; 
Groentenmarkt, 1; Oostende B.8400, Belgium. 

Used Books 

Available from Seashell Treasures Books, 505 E. 
Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ85012. Phone (602) 274- 
3615. We will exchange your used books for 
credit - write or call. Postage & packing extra on 
all used books. No discounts. 

685 THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 87-93 (1973-1979) 
GD $70.00. 

686 THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 90 (1976) GD 
$10.00. 

687 MALACOLOGICAL REVIEW Vol. 12 
(1979) EX $15.00 

688 MALACOLOGICAL REVIEW Vol. 10 
(1977) EX $15.00 

689 KEEN, A.M. 1971. Sea Shells Tropial West 
Amer. 2nd ed. GD $27.50 

690 KEEN, A.M. 1963. Marine Molluscan 
Genera Western N.A. GD $10.75. 

691 QUIRK & HARRISON 1972. Hawaiian 
Seashells. GD $2.75 

692 INDO-PACIFIC MOLLUSCA Cassidae in 
Binder #2. GD $19.75. 

693 D'ATTILIO, A. Seashore Life Coloring 
Book, EX $1.50. 

694 ABBOTT, R.T. Sea Shells of the World, 
Golden Nature Guide. $1.95. 

695 BAKER & HANNA1927. Marine Mollusca 
Order Opisthobranchiata. Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., 16(5):123-135, pi. 4. $2.25. 



38 



S&SL - January, 1985 



Observations of a Dwarf Octopus. Octopus micropyrsus . 

by Peter L. Haaker 



One of the smallest, and least known, octopuses occurs in the waters of 
Southern California. Octopus micropyrsus Berry, 1953, grows to only 25 
mm in dorsal mantle length, a size which probably relegates it to relative 
anonymity. It has been foundliving ingastropod shellsand theholdfasts 
of giant Kelp. Its range is from Santa Barbara to San Diego, including 
the Channel Islands (Hochberg and Fields, 1980). 

In many years of diving, I had never observed this species. In May 
1982, on an abalone transplant evaluation survey, I had the occasion to 
photograph this unusual octopus. In the course of our work, Mia Tegner, 
of Scripps Institution, had broken a short horizontal mudstone pinnacle 
riddled with piddock clam bores, and had found a small octopusguarding 
eggs at the inner end of an empty piddock hole. We replaced the pinna- 
cle, marked the spot, and returned to the boat for my camera. 

Later, while re-opening the den for photographs, I apparently ruptured 
one of the eggs. A miniature fully developed octopus scurried out of the 
den and disappeared into another piddock hole (Photo # 924). The adult, 
presumably a female, was quite defensive of the remaining eggs, which 
were well along in their development. Close inspection of the pho- 
tographs revealed a single well pigmented octopus in each egg. The adult 
did not try to leave the clutch of eggs, a behavior similar to that observed 
in other egg guarding octopuses. 

The photographs showed a total of four eggs in this den (Photo # 925). 
The large egg size is a requirement of having fully developed juvenilesat 
hatching. The small adult size limits the number of such eggs that can be 
guarded by any individual. 

Octopus micropyrsus can have fewer eggs because of its cryptic nature, 
defense of the nest, and especially because of the advanced development 
at hatching, which eliminates theplanktonic stages, where high mortality 
occurs. This adaptation is a classic example of how fecundity may be 
reduced by better protecting the early life stages. 

Field notes: These observations were made on May 19, 1982, at Palos 
Verdes Point, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Los Angeles County, California. 
Water depth was about 10 m. Neither the adult, any juveniles, nor eggs 
were collected. 

References 

Hochberg, F.G., Jr., & W.G. Fields 1980. Cephalopoda: The Squids and Octopuses, p. 437. In: 
Morris, R.H., D. P. Abbott &E.C. Haderlie. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford Univ. 
Press, Palo Alto, California, 690 p. 

Peter L. Haaker, California Dept of Fish and Game, 1301 W. 12th St, Long Beach, CA 90813. 

See photographs back page. 



S&SL - January, 1985 39 




Photo 925 



I Octopus 
I micropyrsus 
I Berry, 1953 



•-# 



Photo 924 




See Article inside back cover. 
40 




v Ml 




S&SL - January, 1985